NANOMATERIALS AND NANOPARTICLES
Definition – Materials in which the nano-component is pure carbon. Therefore polymers do not fall into this category.
Technologies for the production of nanomaterials…
The control of the synthesis process of nanomaterials, that is the ability to obtain nanostructures with specific morphologies, and therefore controlled structural and functional properties, is a fundamental requirement to obtain the most suitable material for a specific application. The approaches used can be chemical and physical.
The chemical approach (also called “bottom up”) is based on the assembly of atom by atom or molecule by molecule, to build the nanomaterial. For this purpose, the ability that some atoms or molecules have to self-assemble is exploited due to their nature and that of the substrate.
The physical approach (also called “top down”) is based, instead, on the creation of very small structures starting from macro-materials, as in the case of silicon “microchips”. In practice, the synthesis of nanomaterials is carried out with technologies that can also combine the chemical approach with the physical one.
Production of nanophasic particles
In some reference documents, such as the RoadmaponNanoManufacturing, nanostructures are called “nanophased particles” implicitly meaning that they are nanostructures having at least one phase at the nanoscale. A nanophase nanostructure consists of matter with chemical and physical homogeneity (such as to constitute a single phase) and having dimensions of the nanometric order.
The most interesting and most investigated types are based on:
- Metals and alloys
- Semiconductors (quantum dots)
- Ceramics (oxides, hydroxides, carbides, nitrides)
- Polymers etc.
After the production stage of the nanophasic particles, a second stage may be necessary to “functionalize” them to modify / optimize their properties and make them suitable for specific applications. The most common methods for functionalization include coating and chemical modification of the surface.
Functionalization of nanophasic particles
Functionalization is a further step in the production chain and can significantly affect the final costs. The functionalization processes based instead on the chemical modification of the surface are the sintsi in situ (for example the nanoparticles are generated directly within a polymeric matrix following the decomposition of a metal precursor) and grafting, i.e. grafting on the surface, through the formation of a chemical bond, of functional groups.
QED is a quantum theory relating to the electrodynamic force of the interactions inherent in charged particles with an electromagnetic field. It mathematically describes not only all the interactions between light and matter, but also those inherent in charged particles. It is one of the most successful physical theories advanced to date.
The quantum electrodynamics of cavities describes the behavior of atoms and photons contained in a small cavity, an experimental model useful for offering a window on quantum behaviors, very different from those in free space.
Let’s see what happens to the water as it flows through a normal pipe. As the water flows inside the pipes, it detaches the nanoparticles of the material through which it flows, creating toxins, and also undergoes an accumulation of electrostatic charges during this phase. Another factor to keep in mind is that the pipes of a plant have an angle of 90 degrees this creates a thickening of molecules at that point, creating large clusters that prevent the optimal release of oxygen during the absorption phase of the cells.
There are further factors that are lacking, such as solar radiation and the possibility through movement to mix with various gases (oxygen, hydrogen, etc.) and materials present in nature (silicon, carbon, etc.).